Braille Code of
Chemical Notation



Search Chemistry

1. Indicators
2. Format
3. Signs/Symbols
4. Formulas
5. Labels
6. Type Forms
7. Super/Subscripts
8. Names
9. Abbreviations
Index of Symbols
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Single letters and combinations of letters
     used as "shorthand" names of chemical matter are common in chemistry. They
     may consist of a mixture of upper- and lower-case letters, small capital letters,
     Greek letters, numerals, superscripts and subscripts. Different type forms are
     often mixed. All must be duplicated in braille.

9.1  General Rules.

    (1)  Capitalize and italicize letters individually.

    (2)  Do not use contractions.

    (3)  Do not contract to, into, and by.

    (4)  Punctuate in mathematical mode.

    (5)  Space as in print.

    Example 9.1-1: acyl-S-CoA


    Example 9.1-2: CTP


    Example 9.1-3: D : N (dextrose-nitrogen ratio)

    ,d "1 ,n (dextrose-nitrog5 ratio)

    Example 9.1-4: RNase


    Example 9.1-5: RNAse


    Example 9.1-6: FMNH2


    Example 9.1-7: tRNAHis


    Example 9.1-8: IgM


    Example 9.1-9: 5'-CmCGG


    Example 9.1-10: trp operator

    .;t.;r.;p op]ator


    Example 9.1-11:



    ",lys-,val-,tyr-,pro-,asp-,ala-,gly- ,glu-,asp-,gln-,ser-,ala-,glu-,ala- ,phe-,pro-,leu-,glu-,phe;39


    Example 9.1-12: E. coli Exo I

    .;,e_4 .coli ,exo ;,i


    Example 9.1-13: tR1



    Example 9.1-14: A T C A A T T G A T C A T G C G T T C A A G 5'

    ,',all lrs >e capitaliz$ 9 pr9t4,'


    Example 9.1-15: (all letters variables)

    heat gained
    or lost
    = (
    in grams
    ) (
    change in
    ) (

    h1t ga9$ or lost
     .k (mass 9 grams)
      (*ange 9 temp]ature)(specific h1t)
    q .k (m)(.,d,t)(,c;p")

    9.2 Physical States. The letters representing the physical state of chemical
        compounds are not to be considered abbreviations. Some examples are:

      (l) liquid

      (g) gas

      (c) or (cr) crystalline

      (aq) aqueous

      (s) solid

      If print does not show these in parentheses, they must be spaced from the
      compound and the English letter indicator must be used. Type form is


      Example 9.2-1: #2,k(cr)+2,h2,o(l)
       $o #2,k,o,h(aq)+,h2(g)


      Example 9.2-2:

      ,h2,o(l) $o ,h2,o(s),


      Example 9.2-3:

      ,h2,o ;l $o ,h2,o ;s


    9.3 Standard International Units of Measurement. These are abbreviations, as
         defined by the Nemeth Code, when they are associated with a numeral or
         a variable representing a numeral. However, if these units themselves are
         used as variables, they are not to be treated as abbreviations. Both
         abbreviations and variables are punctuated in the mathematical mode. To,
         into, and by cannot be contracted and attached to an abbreviation.

         When transcribing degrees of temperature, the rules of the Nemeth Code
         do not apply in chemistry. The spacing and location of the abbrevia-
         tions and the degree sign must follow the print. If the degree sign is
         unspaced from the abbreviation, the letter is no longer a "single letter"
         as defined by the Nemeth Code and the English letter indicator is not used.

      Example 9.3-1: (g is an abbreviation)

      165 g

      #165 ;g


      Example 9.3-2: (g and cm are variables)




      Example 9.3-3: (R is a constant, other letters are abbreviations)

      R = 8.31 dm3· kPa/mol· K

      ,r .k #8.31 dm^3 * k,pa_/mol * ;,k


      Example 9.3-4: (Greek letter in abbreviation; punctuated in the mathematical mode)

      5 µg/ml.

      #5 .mg_/ml_4


      Example 9.3-5: (the C is a "single letter")


      #10^.* ;,c


      Example 9.3-6: (completely unspaced so there are no "single letters")




      Example 9.3-7: (degree sign follows the C, C is not a "single letter")




    9.4 Letters Representing Chemical Groups. These may appear in regular
         or italic type when associated with chemical notation. The type form
         must be indicated in braille and print spacing must be followed.

      Example 9.4-1: (R and X represent chemical groups)

      2     $O ,R2,N,H2"^+",X^-
      4       ,NA^+",O,H^-
      5     $333333333333O ,R2,N,H+,NA^+",X
      7         +,H2,O

      Example 9.4-2: (K is a constant; A and B represent chemical groups)

      K =

      K =



        .K ?@(,H3,O^+"@)@(,A^-"@)

        .K ?@(,B,H^+"@)@(,O,H^-"@)


      Example 9.4-3: (M represents a chemical group)



      Example 9.4-4: (R represents reaction rate, T represents temperature, a represents activity, and ln is natural logarithm)

      DrG = DrGo + RT ln

      1/2 3/2
         .K .,D;R",G^.*
           "+,R,TLN ?A;,N,H;;3


      Example 9.4-5: (g means gas; a is activity)

      ?1/2#,N2(G, A;,N;;2")
           +?3/2#,H2(G, A;,H;;2")
         .K ,N,H3(G, A;,N,H;;3")


      Example 9.4-6: (Ox - oxidation, Red - reduction, R - right, L - left)

      OxR + RedL = RedR + OxL

      ,ox;,r"+,red;,l .k ,red;,r"+,ox;,l


      Example 9.4-7:

      [S]([Er]) - [ES])



      k-1 + k+2


      = KM


      The lumped constant KM, which replaces the term

      (k-1 + k+2)/k+1 , is called the Michaelis-Menten constant.

      (7) ?@(,S@)(@(,E;,T"@)-@(,E,S@))
             .K ?K;-1"+K;+2"/K;+1"#
           .K ,K;,M
        ,! LUMP$ 3/ANT ,K;,M, : REPLACES !
      t]m (K;-1"+K;+2")_/K;+1, IS CALL$ ! .,MI*AELIS-,M5T5 .3/ANT4


      Example 9.4-8: (R represents a free radical, M a monomer, and k is a constant.)

      Rn· + M

      ,r;n"*+,m $3333o ,r;n+1"*



      Example 9.4-9: (mixture of letters and abbreviations)

      Suppose a piece of lead with a mass of 14.9 g at a temperature of 92.5°C     is dropped into an insulated container of water. The mass of water is 165 g     and its temperature before adding the lead is 20.0°C. What is the final     temperature of the system?    Cp lead = 0.1276 J/g·C°
      ,SUPPOSE A PIecE ( L1D )A MASS (
      #14.9 ;G AT A TEMP]ATURE ( #92.5^.*",C
      IS DROPP$ 96AN 9SULAT$ 3TA9] ( WAT]4 ,!
      MASS ( WAT] IS #165 ;G & XS TEMP]ATURE
      2F A4+ ! L1D IS #20.0^.*",C_4 ,:AT IS !
      ,C;P LEAD .K #0.1276 ;,J_/;G * ,C^.*

    9.5Letters Representing Concentration of Solutions. These letters must follow
         the print spacing and type form.

        M Molarity (number of moles of a solute in 1 dm3 of solution)

        m molality (number of moles of a solute in 1 kilogram of solvent)

        N Normality (equivalent mass of solute per liter of solution)

        F Formality (number of moles per liter of solution)

    Example 9.5-1: (A represents a chemical group; F is Formality; L is an abbreviation)

    Formality of A = FA =
    Moles A added to the solution

    Liters of solution

    For example, we can prepare 1.00 F HCl by mixing water with 1 mol HCl
    until the volume is 1 L.

    ,=MAL;Y ( ,A

    .K .;,F;,A

    .K ?,MOLES ;,A A4$ 6! SOLUTION


    ,= EXAMPLE1 WE C PREP>E #1.00 .;,F

    ,H,CL 0MIX+ WAT] ) #1 MOL ,H,CL UNTIL ! VOLUME IS #1 ;,L_4


    Example 9.5-2: (N is normality; M is molarity)

    Since there is only one proton per molecule, N = M = 0.150 N.

    ,s9ce "! is only "o proton p] mole-

    cule1 .;,n .k .;,m .k #0.150 .;,n_4


    Example 9.5-3: (N is normality, unspaced)

    30.0 mL of a 4.00N solution

    #30.0 m,l (a #4.00.;,N solu;n

    Example 9.5-4: (N is normality, spaced)

    0.1536 N

    #0.1536 .;,n


    Example 9.5-5: (m is molality, unspaced)

    1m solution

    #1.;m solu;n


    Example 9.5-6: (m is molality; C is an abbreviation; T is a variable; K is a







    .k ?.,d,t;b"/,k;b"#

    .k ,?1.94 [^.*",c]

    ,/2.53 [^.*",c]_/.;m,#

    .k #0.767 .;m


    Example 9.5-7: (M is molarity, unspaced)

    Calculate the [OH-] of a 0.500M solution of aqueous ammonia.

    ,calculate ! @(,o,h^-"@) (a

    #0.500.;,M solu;n ( aque|s ammonia4


    Example 9.5-8: (M is molarity, spaced)

    AgCl is soluble in 15 M aqueous ammonia, NH3 ; AgI is not dissolved by

    15 M aqueous ammonia, NH3 .

    ,ag,cl is solu# 9 #15 .;,m aque|s

    ammonia1 ,n,h3_2 ,ag,i is n 4solv$ by

    #15 .;,m aque|s ammonia1 ,n,h3_4


    Example 9.5-9: (M is molarity)

    0.215-M KOH solution

    #0.215-.;,M ,k,o,h solu;n



    Example 9.5-10: (N is normality)

    0.100-N solution of NaOH

    #0.100-.;,n solu;n ( ,na,o,h


    Example 9.5-11: (N is normality; M is molarity)


    9.6Roman Numerals Followed by Letters. Combinations of this type are
          often found in periodic tables and in discussions of the periodic table.


      Example 9.6-1: IIIA


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