Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
Basic Principles and General Formats
- Basic Principles. This Code sets forth braille symbols and usage rules that must be applied in transcribing the more commonly encountered English textbook formats. It is neither possible nor practical to provide directives for all potential transcription problems; therefore, when dealing with print formats that are not covered in this Code, assistance should be obtained from a textbook format braille specialist.
- Textbook transcriptions must conform to English Braille American Edition and to the rules and usages set forth in this Code unless they are exceptions as noted in (1) below that must conform to the following braille codes.
Computer Braille Code
Computer Braille Code Supplement, Flowchart Design for Applicable Braille Codes
Manual of Braille Music Notation, American Edition, with its International Supplement
Rules for Transcribing Foreign Languages
The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation
(1) Technical materials. Transcriptions of the following materials should be undertaken only by braillists who are trained in the use of the appropriate braille code(s).
(a) Computer notation. The transcription of all computer notation that is shown in any textbook must be in accordance with the provisions of the Computer Braille Code.
(2) Partially technical works. Science books written for laymen or textbooks in fields that use occasional mathematical or scientific terminology and notation must be transcribed as directed in Rule 5, Sections 1 and 2.
(b) Mathematics and science texts. In transcribing technical works, such as textbooks for logic, mathematics, statistics, and physics, the symbols and usage rules of The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation must be used throughout.
(c) Music notation. The transcription of all music notation that is shown in any textbook must be in accordance with the provisions of the Manual of Braille Music Notation, American Edition, with its International Supplement.
(d) Technical illustrations. Except for texts requiring music notation when transcribing technical materials in which sequentially numbered labels are used to identify illustrations (e.g., flowcharts, graphs, tables, etc.), these labels must be centered on the last line of every braille page on which any part of a sequentially numbered illustration appears.
 Flowcharts. Flowcharts must be transcribed according to the Computer Braille Code Supplement, Flowchart Design for Applicable Braille Codes.
 Mathematical illustrations. The transcription of illustrations shown in mathematics texts must be in accordance with the provisions given in Guidelines for Mathematical Diagrams, a publication of the Braille Authority of North America.
- Code definitions, format, and terminology
(1) Code definitions. The rules of this Code contain definitions that identify print materials for which specific braille formats are provided. Regardless of print terminology, in the braille edition material must be identified and transcribed according to the appropriate Code definition. For example, in print texts columnar materials may be referred to as lists, columns, tables, or even figures. In braille, the material first must be identified as fitting one of the specific definitions given in Rule 7 for columned material and lists or in Rule 8 for tables, and then transcribed accordingly.
(2) Code format
(a) Braille symbol identification. When required for the identification of a particular braille symbol named in this Code, the appropriate dot numbers are enclosed in parentheses and placed after the name of the symbol. See also Section 15b(1) below.
(3) Code terminology
(b) Code typefaces
 Boldface identifies section and subsection headings.
 Italics indicate emphasis or distinction. Italics and small caps are used to set off specific examples of wordings, headings, and other items that are to be brailled. However, in an actual transcription special typeface would not be used for these items.
(a) The words sign, character, and mark are used exclusively to identify items in the print text.
(b) The words symbol, contraction, and indicator are used exclusively to identify items in the braille text.
(c) The term underlining is used exclusively to identify single or multiple lines printed beneath words or word parts to indicate emphasis. All print underlining must be represented by braille italics as provided in Rule 3, Sections 1 and 2.
(d) The term underscoring is used exclusively to identify the lines that are drawn beneath words or phrases in spatial sentence diagrams. Print underscoring must be represented in accordance with provisions given in Rule 15, Section 3b(2).
(e) The terms left-adjusted, left-aligned, and flush left refer to text alignment in which all lines begin at the same left margin.
- General formats. Formats in this Code are based on normal braille reading abilities. The transcriber's responsibility is to produce a braille edition that is consistent in format and that provides an accurate presentation of the print text in conformity with this Code. The classroom use of a braille text is the responsibility of the educator. This Code does not address the special problems presented in the transcription of teachers' editions of textbooks.
When a text is transcribed in a manner that does not follow official textbook format and/or other braille code rules, the transcription must not be listed with a central agency such as the Central Catalog of the American Printing House for the Blind.
- General textbooks
(1) Before beginning a transcription, the print textbook must be completely examined in order to determine and structure all of the braille formats that are required.
(2) It may be useful to refer to a copy of the teacher's edition of the book. If necessary, consult the classroom teacher for clarification.
(3) When a textbook is part of a series that includes books for use in several school grades, every effort should be made to ensure the uniformity of braille symbols and format throughout the series.
(4) If boxes, columns, pictures, or numbered and lettered items are printed in various positions on pages of the text, the transcriber must establish an order of presentation. This order must be followed consistently throughout the braille edition to avoid errors of omission or repetition.
(5) When material is printed across facing pages so that it is read as if it were on a single page, see Section 13c(2) below.
(6) When transcribing workbooks that contain exercises, drills, and tests, particular attention must be given to the directives provided in Rule 13, Section 1.
(7) For the transcription of English texts containing foreign words and terms, see Section 6 below.
(8) Paragraph format
(a) The first sentence of indented paragraphs should begin in cell 3 with runovers in cell 1. If numbered, the number of each indented paragraph should begin in cell 3.
(b) When blocked paragraphs are shown, follow the print copy, leaving a blank line before starting each paragraph in cell 1, with runovers also in cell 1. If numbered, the number of each blocked paragraph should begin in cell 1. EXCEPTION: If an entire text or an extensive section of the text is printed in blocked paragraphs, the indented format above should be substituted.
- Textbooks for kindergarten and first grade. Materials for those who are beginning to read braille present special problems because of the reduced amount of braille that can be placed on a page. If a teacher requests modifications of the print text to accommodate a specific student's level of competency, these modifications should be made in the braille edition. However, the material should not be registered with a central agency.
In addition to the general directives given below, specific requirements for kindergarten and first grade texts are set forth in other sections of the Code rule, as follows.
Page size, line length, and line spacing, Section 8
Volume size, Section 9
(1) Normal braille format must be preserved except that where one blank line is required for regular format, two blank lines must be left in kindergarten or first grade material. Each line of braille must be preceded by a blank line unless it is the first line on a braille page or when it is a line carrying the page change indicator.
(2) A braille title page must not be double-spaced. Because of the smaller page size used for these books, two braille pages may be needed to present all of the required title page information. In such cases, the first title page must include the complete book title, main author and publisher information, braille volume number, and the inclusive braille and print page numbers. The remaining information should be placed on a second title page in all volumes.
(3) Begin each story on a new braille page.
(4) When each sentence in the print text is shown starting on a new line, follow the print copy.
(5) Words should not be divided between braille lines, and it is recommended that sentences should not be divided between braille pages.
(6) Transcriber's notes must not be used in braille texts for kindergarten and first grade. Instead, a print page containing explanations of all the special symbols and formats used in the braille edition should be bound with each volume to assist the classroom teacher.
- Typographical and other print errors. See Rule 14, Section 2 for the transcription of intentional print errors.
- If the transcriber has no doubt about a simple and obvious print typographical error it should be corrected in the braille edition.
- When more serious errors appear in a text, such as incorrect spellings and/or grammar, misplaced lines, or garbled text, braille the material as printed. In a text where these errors occur frequently, a statement similar to the following may be placed on the Transcriber's Notes page(s).
Errors that appear in spelling, grammar or punctuation, and breaks in text continuity are brailled as printed.
- Uncontracted braille, letter indicator, order of braille punctuation and composition symbols
- Uncontracted braille. When the text refers to spelling, grammar, or pronunciation observe the following.
(1) Freestanding letter combinations and portions of words must be written in uncontracted braille and the contractions for to, into, and by must not precede them.
(2) When a text refers to the spelling of a word, that word must be written in uncontracted braille. See also Section 5a below and Rule 15, Sections 1c(1) and 1d.
(3) If the text calls attention to a specific letter or a letter combination within a word by direct reference or by use of a special typeface or enclosure signs, that word must be written in uncontracted braille.
(4) Words in narrative text shown followed by pronunciations brailled according to Rule 18 must be transcribed in contracted braille. However, foreign words shown accompanied by pronunciations must be written in uncontracted braille. See also Section 6c below.
- Letter indicator. In addition to normal usage of the letter indicator, when the text refers to spelling, grammar, or pronunciation, observe the directives given below for the transcription of free standing single letters and letter combinations that mean letters.
(1) The contractions for to, into, and by must not precede these letters.
(2) The letter indicator must be used before any single letter and before a letter combination that corresponds to a short-form word.
(3) Use the letter indicator before a single letter that is followed by a hyphen, e.g., The prefix a- means "not" or "without".
(4) Do not use the letter indicator when a hyphen precedes a single letter or a letter combination, e.g., Plural forms end in -s and -es.
- Order of braille punctuation and composition symbols. When two or more of these symbols precede a letter, word, or number, they must be placed in the order shown below.
|Order with letters or words||Order with numbers|
|Left parenthesis or bracket||Left parenthesis or bracket|
|Left quotation mark||Left quotation mark|
|Italic indicator||Italic indicator|
|Letter indicator||Number indicator|
|Capital indicator||Decimal symbol|
- Syllabified words and word division
- Syllabified words. When the text refers to the spelling or pronunciation of syllabified words, observe the following.
(1) Syllabified words must be written in uncontracted braille.
(2) If the text shows dots, stars, blank spaces, etc., separating the letters or syllables of a word, braille hyphens must replace the print signs or blank spaces between letters or syllables. Explain the substitution in a transcriber's note.
- Word division. An agency may designate a specific reference dictionary and establish policy to govern word division in transcriptions that it sponsors. Following are general directives regarding word division.
(1) To insure uniformity in word division, it is recommended that the same dictionary be used for reference when a transcription is to be done by two or more braillists.
(2) In transcribing tests, do not divide words at the ends of lines.
(3) In materials for grades 1-3, words must not be divided at the ends of lines unless the print text shows such word divisions.
- Foreign material in English context. The provisions given in this Code section apply to the transcription of foreign words and phrases that appear in English educational or instructional materials.
- Definitions of anglicized and foreign material
(1) Anglicized material. To identify anglicized words and phrases consult the reference dictionary recommended by the sponsoring agency or a standard dictionary with a copyright date no older than ten years. All words or expressions that appear as A to Z entries in the body of the dictionary must be considered anglicized unless they are identified as foreign, e.g., printed in distinctive typeface or preceded by a special print marker. When used in an English context foreign proper names and personal titles are considered to be anglicized. This includes names of persons, cities, buildings, organizations, government bodies, institutions, and churches that are usually capitalized, but frequently are not italicized.
NOTE: When frequent use of a dictionary for identification of anglicized material is necessary during a transcription, the name and copyright date of the reference dictionary must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page.
(2) Foreign Material. For the purposes of agencies and transcribers working with codes of the Braille Authority of North America, any language other than modern English must be considered a foreign language. By definition this includes Old English and Middle English, as well as transliterated or romanized forms of languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, and Russian.
- Format for anglicized material
(1) In English context, transcribe proper names, anglicized words, and phrases using all applicable contractions, retaining special print typeface according to Rule 3, Section 1 and the print enclosure signs provided in Rule 6, Section 2. Additionally, observe the following regarding use of contractions.
(a) Foreign personal titles must be treated as part of the proper name and fully contracted. Such personal titles must be considered anglicized even when joined by the foreign word for and.
(2) Insert the accent symbol (4) before each foreign character or accented letter shown in proper names, anglicized words, and expressions. Foreign characters and accented letters must not form part of any braille contraction.
(b) Contractions must not be used in anglicized words when they overlap a well-defined syllable division or when they conflict with any other rule governing contractions in English braille.
(c) A one-cell, part-word contraction must not overlap a syllable division in an anglicized word that is spelled the same as an English word but has a different pronunciation. However, two-cell, final-letter contractions should be used in an anglicized word that is spelled the same as an English word.
(d) Words that correspond to English alphabet contractions or short-form words must be written in uncontracted braille. Similarly, two-cell, initial-letter contractions must not be used when the pronunciation of anglicized words in which they appear differs from their English equivalents.
(e) In an anglicized phrase, the word en must not be contracted to avoid confusion with the contraction for the word enough.
NOTE: The only instance in which the accent symbol may precede a contraction is where it indicates a stressed English syllable, as in blessèd or reënforce.
(3) In an anglicized phrase, use the letter indicator before any single letter or letter combination that could be mistaken for an English contraction or short-form word. This indicator must also precede any foreign ordinal ending added to an arabic or roman numeral.
- Format for foreign languages in the Latin alphabet. In English context, when transcribing foreign words and phrases from languages that use the Latin alphabet, as well as non-Latin alphabet languages shown in a transliterated or romanized form, follow the directives given below.
(1) Transcribe foreign words and phrases in uncontracted braille, retaining special print typeface according to Rule 3, Section 1 and print enclosure signs according to Rule 6, Section 2.
NOTE: Contractions must not be used in any proper name, whether English or foreign, that is part of a foreign language phrase, passage, or book title.
(2) Insert the accent symbol (4) before each foreign character or accented letter.
(3) Do not use the letter indicator before any single-letter foreign word. The letter indicator must be used before any foreign ordinal ending added to an arabic or roman numeral.
- Format for foreign languages in non-Latin alphabets. Greek, Hebrew, and Russian are the only languages using non-Latin alphabets for which an official BANA code provides braille symbols.
(1) As a general rule, it is not necessary to include in the braille edition any incidental non-Latin characters, words, or phrases that appear in English context when this material is of no practical value to the reader. Interrupt the transcription at an appropriate point with a transcriber's note identifying the language and stating that the material has not been reproduced.
(2) When access to the exact print notation used for characters, words, or phrases shown in the Greek, Hebrew, or Russian alphabets is required for full understanding or use of the text, see Rules for Transcribing Foreign Languages for the appropriate foreign alphabet symbols. These symbols, as well as those provided below, must be listed in a transcriber's note, either before the affected text in accordance with Sections 7a(2)(a) and (b) below, or in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.
(a) Greek letters. A single Greek letter or letter combination must be preceded by the Greek letter indicator (2). Follow print copy for capitalization, but ignore special print typeface and do not use the letter indicator before these letters.
(b) Greek words and passages. Ignore any special print typeface used for this material. If no more than three Greek words are shown, use the letter indicator (56) before each word. In passages of more than three Greek words, a double letter indicator must precede the first word and a single letter indicator must precede the last word.
(c) Hebrew or Russian. Enclose the foreign material in braces. If the context does not make it clear, insert the name of the language and a colon should precede the material within the braces.
- Foreign punctuation. For the transcription of punctuation in foreign language materials that appear in English context, See Rule 6, Section 1f.
- Transcriber's notes. Any wording not shown in the print text that is inserted in the braille edition by the transcriber must be treated as a transcriber's note.
- Placement of transcriber's notes
(1) When a special braille format or usage requiring explanation appears throughout a braille volume or an entire transcription, it must be explained on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) according to Rule 2, Section 6. If such a format appears infrequently, insert the explanation as a transcriber's note immediately before the affected text.
(2) Unfamiliar abbreviations or special symbols used only in a particular section of the text must be identified in a transcriber's note inserted before the section of text that is affected.
(a) If not more than three abbreviations or special braille symbols require identification, include them within the paragraph(s) of the transcriber's note. Paragraphs must be indented according to Section 7b(2) below.
(3) When identification or a brief description of a print sign or term and its braille equivalent must be given, stop the transcription immediately after the sign or term. Insert a transcriber's note of explanation on the next braille line. On the line below the note resume the text using normal indention.
(b) Identifications of four or more abbreviations or braille symbols must be brailled as a list, preceded and followed by a blank line. Begin each item in cell 1 and runovers in cell 3. The closing transcriber's note symbol must follow the last item.
(4) Whenever a full print page or more of charts, diagrams, tables, or other material that is to be included at the same location in the braille edition is placed so as to break the continuity of thought on pages of narrative text, follow the directives given below.
(a) The following transcriber's note must be inserted on the line below the end of the regular test and preceding the line containing the page change indicator.
Text continued on page ____.
(b) Upon completion of the interjected material, insert the page change indicator with the following transcriber's note on the line below.
Continued from page ____.
When the print page referred to is a lettered continuation page, the appropriate letter must be brailled before the print page number.
NOTE: For the labeling of tables that occupy a full print page, see Rule 8, Section 4b.
- Content and format of transcriber's notes. Special attention must be given to the wording of all such notes. The vocabulary used should reflect the grade level and the subject matter of the text. As a general rule, description of the print format should be as brief and concise as possible.
NOTE: The sample transcriber's notes that are shown accompanying many Code sections are suggestions only, and they may be modified whenever necessary.
(1) A blank line must not be left before or after a transcriber's note except as provided in Section 7a(2)(b) above or where required by other braille formats.
(2) Each note must be brailled in paragraph form, with each paragraph starting in cell 7 and runovers in cell 5.
(3) The unspaced transcriber's note symbol (6, 3) must precede and follow each complete note, regardless of the number of paragraphs it may contain. As a lower-cell enclosure symbol, the transcriber's note symbol must not be in contact with any whole-word, lower-cell braille contraction.
(4) Page references in transcriber's notes must be to print page numbers except when items are on preliminary braille pages.
(5) When a braille symbol in a transcriber's note is clearly identified by the context of the note or the surrounding text, it is not necessary to insert the dot numbers of the symbol.
- Page size, line length, and line spacing. An agency may specify the page size and braille line length to be used in transcriptions that it sponsors. Following are general directives regarding page size, line length, and line spacing.
- Materials for kindergarten and first grade should be embossed on pages no larger than 9 by 11 inches, with the braille lines running along the 11-inch dimension.
(1) These pages of 20 lines must carry no more than 10 lines of double-spaced braille text with a maximum of 41 cells to the line. See also Section 2b above.
(2) If print interlining is required, the print must appear word-for-word above the braille.
- All other textbooks should be embossed on pages of 25 lines with a maximum of 41 cells to the line. Single line spacing must be used.
- Volume Size, numbering, and ending indication.
- Volume size. Depending upon its embossing output as either one-side or interpoint braille, an agency may specify maximum braille volume size for the transcriptions that it sponsors. Following are general directives.
(1) Wherever possible, a braille volume must be ended where there is a logical break in thought, e.g., at the end of a unit, part, chapter, or section. Adherence to this principle is more important than maintaining uniform volume size throughout the braille edition.
(2) Volumes in textbooks for kindergarten and grades 1-3 should contain no more than 50 one-side braille pages.
(3) Volumes in all other textbooks should contain no more than 90 one-side braille pages.
- Volume numbering. Volumes of the braille edition must be given consecutive arabic numbers that are to be placed:
(1) On all title pages, as provided in Rule 2, Section 2c(7).
(2) In the table of contents for Volume 1 only, as provided in Rule 2, Section 7b(2).
- Volume ending indication. End-of-volume indication is not required. However, an agency may establish policy to govern format for volume ending indication in transcriptions that it sponsors.
- Supplementary volumes. Appendixes, glossaries, indexes, and similar text sections are often more useful when bound in separate braille volumes.
- If consecutive volume numbers cannot be determined in advance, the volumes should be identified and numbered as directed below, and listed on the title page according to Rule 2, Section 2c(7)(c).
- Such volumes should be identified as Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Glossary 1, Glossary 2, etc. If a volume contains material from several text sections, such as an appendix and an index, these volumes should be identifed as Supplement 1, Appendix & Index A-K; Supplement 2, Index L-Z, and so forth.
- The braille page numbers in each supplementary volume should begin with arabic 1.
- Transposed material. Word lists, note sections, tests, and similar materials are often more useful when they are transposed from their original locations in the print text to different locations in the braille edition. When material is transposed, follow the directives below.
- Print page numbers. When pages of material that is to be transposed are numbered in the print text, they must be similarly numbered in braille according to Section 13 below.
- Braille page numbers. Pages of material that is transposed must be given braille page numbers as provided in Section 14 below.
- Transposed material must be indicated in the braille edition:
(1) On the title page, according to Rule 2, Section 2c(9)(d), only if pages of transposed material are numbered in the print text.
(2) In the table of contents, according to Rule 2, Section 7c(5).
- Titles and running heads
- Titles. In each braille volume, the complete book title including a graded level (only if indicated in print), series name, subtitle, and edition name or number, must appear on the first line(s) of the first page of text that is given a print page number. Leave a blank line after the complete title.
(1) The fully capitalized book title must be centered on the first line, leaving at least three blank cells at the beginning of the line and before the print page number. When more than one line is required, each subsequent line must also be centered.
(2) If shown in the print text, a graded level must be brailled according to Rule 2, Section 2c(3).
(3) A subtitle must be centered on the line below the title. It must be brailled using only initial capitals.
- Running heads. The headers and/or footers shown printed on all text pages must be ignored in braille. However, if an agency requires use of the book title as a running head, this running head must appear on the first line of every page except the title page and the first page of text in each volume.
(1) The running head must be fully capitalized and centered on the available cells of the first line, i.e., leaving at least three blank cells at both the beginning of the first line and before the print page number.
(2) The running head must not occupy more than one braille line and it must be the same on all pages. When a book title must be shortened to serve as a running head, follow the steps below in the order in which they are given.
(a) Capitalize only the initial letter of each word in the title.
(3) Running heads followed by other headings. A blank line must be left between the running head and a centered heading, a cell-5 heading, or a column heading that follows. EXCEPTION: No blank line is required between a running head and any braille heading that it is followed by (cont.) and repeated at the top of one or more pages.
(b) Capitalize only the initial letter of the first word and principal words in the title.
(c) Omit minor words and/or abbreviate longer words in the title.
(4) Running heads followed by text. No blank line is required between the running head and narrative text except to indicate a break in context, as provided in Section 16c(2)(a) below.
(5) Running heads followed by poetry. No blank line is required between the running head and narrative text except to indicate a break in context, as provided in Rule 10, Section 1a(4)(d).
(6) Running heads followed by exercise material. No blank line is required between the running head and any lettered or numbered exercise materials or before the directions that precede these materials.
(7) Running heads followed by columned material or listed items. A blank line must be left between a running head and columned material or listed items.
- Print page numbers. Omit print page numbers on the following.
Preliminary pages, Rule 2, Section 1
Acknowledgements transposed to end of braille edition, Rule 1, Section 18a(2)
A repeated cast of characters, Rule 9, Section 1a(4)
A repeated table of pronunciation, Rule 18, Section 1c(4)(b) and Rule 19, Section 2a(3)
All other pages of text, i.e., prefaces, forewords, and introductions, must be numbered as in the print book. See Section 13c(1) below when the first page of text in a roman or an arabic numbered section does not begin with a page numbered as i, I, or 1. Use only running braille page numbers in the braille edition if sections of the text are unnumbered, e.g., inserted pages of full color illustrations. When it is necessary, indicate page changes in these sections by inserting a row of unspaced dots 36 across the braille page.
- Placement of print page numbers. The following provisions apply to roman and arabic page numbes on one-side embossed braille pages.
NOTE:An agency should specify the placement required for print page numbers when two-side embossed braille is produced.
(1) If a new print page begins at the top of a braille page, the print page number must be placed to end at the right margin on the first line with no fewer than three blank cells left between the end of the text or running head and the page number.
(2) When a print page ends on the last or the next-to-last line of a braille page, start the next print page at the top of a new braille page.
(3) If a new print page begins within a braille page, end the braille text with the last word shown on the preceding print page. Follow copy when a word is divided between pages.
(a) Place the new print page number at the right margin on the next braille line.
(b) The page change indicator, a line of unspaced dots 36, must be placed on the same braille line starting at the left margin. No space must be left between this indicator and the first symbol of the print page number.
(c) A blank line must not precede or follow the page change indicator except in the following cases.
 If a break in context occurs at the top of a print page that begins within a braille page, see Section 16c(2)(b) below.
 When a stanza, other than one preceded by a title or a heading, begins at the top of a print page that starts within a braille page, see Rule 10, Section 1a(4)(c).
 Supplementary material with no discernible relationship to the narrative text on a page must be placed as provided in Rule 12, Section 5b(4).
 In texts for kindergarten and first grade, a blank line must be left only after the page change indicator.
- Lettered continuation pages. When material on a print page cannot be contained on a single braille page and must be continued on one or more pages, follow the provisions given below for roman and arabic numbered print pages.
(1) The same print page number must be placed the end at the right margin on the first line of each of these pages.
(2) The number must be preceded by the unspaced letter a for the first continued page, the letter b for the second, etc. These letters must be brailled without the letter indicator, and the usual three blank cells must be left between the end of the text or running head and the lettered page number.
- Combined print page numbers
(1) In Volume 1, when the first page of text in a roman or an arabic numbered section does not begin with a page numbered as i, I, or 1, a combined print page number must be inserted to account for the preceding pages whether or not any of these pages actually carry printed page numbers.
The initial roman or arabic numeral must be combined with the number of the page on which the text section actually begins, e.g., i-v, I-V, or 1-5, and this combined page number must be placed to the end at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they must carry only the number of the page on which the text section actually begins, e.g., av, aV, or a5.
(2) Material printed across facing pages
(a) Material printed across two facing pages of the book as if it were on a single page must be brailled as if it were on a single page. The combined print page numbers, e.g., 6-7,, must be placed to end at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they must also carry the combined print page numbers, e.g., a6-7, b6-7, and so forth.
(3) If one or more print pages contain only headings of the book title, part, unit, or chapter, these headings must be placed on one braille page and followed on the same page by the text they precede. The page number of the first of these pages must be combined with that of the page on which text appears, e.g., 15-17,, and the combined print page numbers must be placed to end at the right margin. If lettered continuation pages are required, they must carry only the number of the page on which text appears, e.g., a17, b17, and so on.
(b) When facing pages of the text carry regular text in addition to material printed to read accross the two pages, the material printed accross the pages must be transcribed using the method provided in Rule 6, Section 3f(2) for boxed material shown across facing pages, substituting blank lines for the top and bottom box lines.
(4) Whenever blank pages, unnumbered pages, or full pages of print material that is to be omitted from the braille edition are included in the print page number count, the page number of the first of these pages must be combined with that of the page on which narrative text reappears, e.g., 25-29. The combined print page numbers must be placed to end at the right margin. When lettered continuation pages are required, these pages must carry only the number of the page on which text appears, e.g., a29, b29, and so forth.
- Pages numbered with roman numerals. The letter indicator must be used before lowercase roman numerals. Use only the single or double capital indicator before capitalized roman numerals.
(1) Follow the print copy for pages numbered with roman numerals except in the following cases.
(a) Omit print page numbers on the preliminary pages that are designated in Rule 2, Section 1b.
(2) Inclusive roman numeral page numbers of text must be placed on the title page. Roman page numbers shown with listed items must be included in the table of contents.
(b) Follow the provisions given in Section 13c(1) above for the first page of text in a roman numbered section of Volume 1 that does not begin with print page number i or I.
- Pages numbered with letter/number or number/number combinations. Such pagination is widely used in computer software manuals and often used for sections of a classroom text or to identify portions of exercise and laboratory manuals. For example, in a speller section the pages may be numbered as 77S-79S; pages IV49-IV51 may identify drills to be used with Chapter IV; or pages in Chapter 6 may be numbered 6-13, 6-14. Often this pagination may be ignored in the braille edition; however, when it must be retained, numbers that identify the consecutive pages of text must be placed to end at the right margin regardless of the sequence shown in print. Each of the consecutive page numbers must be preceded by the number indicator and separated by a braille dash (36, 36) from the letter(s) or number(s) that accompany them. Follow the print copy for capitalization of letters and roman numerals, as shown below.
|IV49, IV50, IV51||IV--49, IV--a49, IV--b49, IV--50, etc.|
|77S, 78S, 79S||S-77, S-a77, S--b77, S--78, etc.|
|6-12, 6-13, 6-14||6--12, 6--a12, 6--b12, 6--13, etc.|
EXCEPTION: When automatic pagination by a computer software program cannot reproduce the braille format shown above, it is permissible for the lettered continuation to precede the entire page designation, e.g., aIV--49, aS--77, a6--12, and so forth.
NOTE: The same format must be used for text page numbers and for page numbers in a table of contents.
- Page tab indexes. Unlike the page number combinations described above, page tab indexes do not serve as numbers for individual text pages. Devices in the print text referred to as page tabs, locator keys, quick references, etc., may appear as specially marked or colored areas placed at the upper right corner or along the right side of the print page. They may contain abbreviations, combinations of numbers, or combinations of letters and numbers. When such devices serve no other purpose than to provide the print reader with a quick visual reference to sections of the text, they must be omitted in the braille edition.
- Braille page numbers. When used with one-side embossed braille, braille page numbers should be shown on all pages in the braille edition. These numbers must be placed to end at the right margin on the last line of a braille page with at least three blank cells left between the end of the text and the braille page number.
NOTE:An agency should specify the placement required for braille page numbers when two-side embossed braille is produced.
- Preliminary pages. Preliminary braille page numbers, placed as directed above, must be preceded by the unspaced letter p brailled without the letter indicator. The title page of each volume must be numbered as p1, and it must be followed by other consecutively numbered preliminary pages in the order given in Rule 2, Section 1b.
- Text pages. All pages of text in the braille edition (including prefaces, forewords, and introductions) should carry consecutive braille page numbers starting with arabic 1 in the first volume. In subsequent volumes, pages of text may be numbered consecutively from volume to volume. However, if a text is transcribed jointly by several braillists or if the braille volumes of a print text are transcribed out of normal sequence, the first page of text in each volume should begin with arabic 1.
- Repeated or omitted braille page numbers. The provisions given below must be applied only to a single repetition or omission. When an extensive number of pages is involved, a notice of the discrepancy in braille page numbers must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page(s).
(1) If a braille page number has been repeated, insert the unspaced repetition symbol (56) before the repeated page number.
(2) If a braille page number has been omitted, insert the unspaced omission symbol (5) before the page number that follows the omission.
(3) Place these symbols immediately preceding the letter p in preliminary page numbers.
(4) When used in a transcription, these symbols must be included in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.
- References to page numbers, braille dots, line numbers, source materials
- References to page numbers
(1) References to print page numbers must follow print copy for the use of the words page, pages, or any abbreviations for these words.
(2) References to preliminary braille page numbers must be shown as page p3, for example. Do not use the letter indicator before the letter p.
- References to braille dots and line numbers
(1) When reference is made to the dot numbers of a particular braille symbol, the identifying dot numbers must be shown enclosed in parentheses without intervening hyphens between the numbers. The number indicator must precede the first dot number of each braille cell. Use a comma and a space between the dot numbers of adjacent braille cells. The dot numbers of any braille symbol, either single- or multiple-cell, must not be divided between braille lines.
(2) To determine a braille line number to which reference is made, all lines must be counted from the top of the page whether or not they carry braille.
- References to source materials. See Rule 7, Section 2e for brailling bibliographies and reference lists. All references to books technical journals or periodicals, and all references to legal, scholarly, and religious materials that appear in a text whether they occur in the narrative body of the text or in bibliographies, notes or marginal material must be transcribed as follows.
(1) Special typefaces must be retained according to Rule 3 for the titles of all publications, including any abbreviations and/or numbers they may contain. Ignore special typefaces for all other abbreviations and numbers except those that are specifically set off for distinction.
(2) Abbreviations must be brailled as printed, following the print copy for capitalization, punctuation, and spacing. Do not insert periods if they are not shown in print.
(3) Follow the print copy for the spacing and punctuation of arabic or roman numerals and for lowercase or capital roman numerals. If a colon is shown between arabic or roman numerals follow print. Use the braille period when a print dot is shown. EXCEPTION:The braille decimal point (46) must be used to represent the print dot shown in a reference that consists of only arabic numerals. The number indicator must be repeated after the braille dash or period, but not after a braille colon, comma, decimal point, or hyphen.
- Blank spaces, blank lines, and breaks in context
- Blank spaces. Leave one blank cell between the sentences in a paragraph. Items on a single print line that are shown widely spaced apart must be brailled with three blank cells separating them. If displayed material contains widely spaced items, see Rule 14, Section 1f.
- Blank lines
(1) One blank line must precede and follow the materials listed below and others that are provided for in this Code except when they begin at the top of a braille page without a running head or when they immeditaely precede or follow the page change indicator.
Bibliographies and reference lists, Rule 7, Section 2e
Columned materials, Rule 7, Section 1
Exercises, drills, or tests, Rule 13, Section 2
Listed items, Rule 7, Section 2
Tables, Rule 8, Section 1b
(2) Specific directive for the use of blank lines are given in other sections of this Code as follows.
Below running heads, Rule 1, Section 12b(3)-(7)
Between unlettered alphabetical divisions in glossaries, handbooks, and dictionaries, Rule 19, Section 1a(2)
Between unlettered alphabetical divisions in an index, Rule 7, Section 4a(2)
Indicating a break in context, Rule 1, Section 16c(2)
In materials for kindergarten and first grade, Rule 1, Section 2b(1)
Separating stanzas of a poem, Rule 10, Section 1a(4)
Setting off displayed material, Rule 14, Section 1a
Setting off quoted matter and epigraphs, Rule 1, Section 17
Setting off spatial sentence diagrams containing arrows, Rule 15, Section 3b(1)(a)
NOTE:No blank lines are required when different braille indention patterns indicate an obvious change in braille format between either print or braille pages.
- Breaks in context
(1) With a print marker. If a series of dots, stars, or other characters is centered on the print line to indicate a break in context, this must be shown in braille by a series of three asterisk symbols (35, 35) separated from each other by a blank cell and centered on the braille line. No blank line is required before or after the series of asterisks.
(2) Without a print marker. Leave one blank line if the print text uses one or more blank lines to indicate a break in context between items shown together on a page. When a context break that involves items having the same braille format and indention occurs between two pages, either print or braille, follow the provisions given below.
(a) When the material that immediately precedes a break in context ends on the last or the next-to-last line of a braille page, a blank line must be left a the top of the next braille page. If a running head is used, a blank line must be left following it.
(b) If a break in context occurs at the top of a print page that begins within a braille page, a blank line must be left following the page change indicator.
- Quoted matter and epigraphs
- Quoted matter. Quotations set off from the body of the text by blank lines, change of margins, reduced type, or special typefaace must be presented in braille as follows.
(1) A blank line must precede and follow the quoted matter.
(2) Ignore any change of margins and follow the print copy for paragraph indention. The indention of dialogue and poetry must be in accordance with Rules 9 and 10.
(3) If quotation marks and a special typeface are shown in print, retain the quotation marks but ignore the special typeface except where required for emphasis or distinction according to Rule 3, Section 1.
- Epigraphs. For the purposes of this Code, and epigraph is a short introductory statement, often a quotation of prose or verse, shown on a page at the beginning of a book or preceding each chapter.
(1) Transcribe an epigraph printed on a page at the front of the book in the same manner as a dedication, according to Rule 2, Section 4. Follow the print copy when an epigraph is printed on a page preceding each chapter.
(2) Transcribe an epigraph containing quoted matter shown following a chapter title or other heading as provided in Section 17a above.
(3) When an epigraph that is shown immediately before or after a chapter title or other heading consists of a brief statement meant to introduce the following text, this material must be separated from the title or heading by a blank line. Follow the print copy for paragraph indention and ignore special typeface except where required for emphasis or distinction. Leave a blank line before the regular text.
- Acknowledgements, attributions, credit lines, and source citations
- Acknowledgements. This Code section does not refer to an author's personal words of gratitude or appreciation that must be brailled in the same manner as a preface or foreword. When the text contains a list or section consisting of the publisher's acknowledgements of permission received for the use of materials form other sources, this material must be transcribed as provided below. Acknowledgements should not be included when they refer to omitted maps, pictures, photographs, or other illustrative materials even though their accompanying captions are included in the braille edition.
(1) Follow the print copy for placement and page numbering of publisher's acknowledgements that appear within the body of the text or those that are shown with page numbers in the table of contents.
(2) When publisher's acknowledgements appear in the front or back matter of the book and are not listed with page numbers in the table of contents, this material must be placed on a new braille page at the end of the last volume of the braille edition.
(3) If a heading is shown in print, follow the provisions given in Rule 4. When acknowledgements must be continued on one or more braille pages, repeat the heading followed by (cont.) at the top of each of these pages. No blank line should be left after the repeated heading.
(4) Follow the print copy when acknowledgements are printed in paragraph form. If shown as a list, begin each item in cell 1 with runovers in cell 3.
- Attributions, credit lines, or source citations. For the purposes of this Code, these are interchangeable terms referring to simple identifications of the sources or authors of materials used in a text. Do not confuse credit lines or attributions with the following materials.
Title and author's name preceding text. The title and author's name shown preceding text must be transcribed as consecutive centered headings according to provisions given in Rule 4, Section 2.
Permission to copy notices or footnotes. Permission to copy notices that are printed with or without reference markers, often shown at the foot of the page, must be brailled according to Rule 12, Sections 1-3.
(1) An author usually acknowledges use of material taken from the work of another author by means of a credit line or source citation placed immediately following the excerpt. A credit line may consist of only the author's name or it may include the title or source of the work. An attribution shown following a preface often includes the author's name, a date, and/or a location. Attributions, credit lines, or source citations are often shown in textbooks with the following items.
Prefaces, forewords, and introductions
Epigraphs and quoted matter
Facsimiles of dictionary entries
Facsimiles of student compositions
Tables or charts taken from sources in the public domain, such as federal government publications.
(2) Format for attributions, credit lines, or source citations
(a) No blank line must precede or follow an attribution, credit line, or source citation unless required by other braille formats. Do not insert a dash before any of these materials unless one appears in print.
(b) An attribution, credit line, or source citation must begin on the same braille page with the material (or a portion thereof) to which it refers. A continuation of any of these materials may be carried over to the next braille page.
(c) Run-in attributions, credit lines, or source citations. Follow print copy for the placement and punctuation of these run-in materials, i.e., those printed on the same line with the material to which they refer. A dash must not be inserted before any of these materials unless one appears in the print text.
(d) Attributions, credit lines, or source citations with materials preceded by titles. Often printed at the bottom of the page following the credited material, these items contain no mention of permission to copy. Place the attribution, credit line, or source citiation on the line below the title starting in cell 7 with runovers also in cell 7.
(e) Attributions, credit lines, or source citations with tables or charts. If any of these materials are shown following a table or chart, place it on the line below the table or chart, starting in cell 5 with runovers also in cell 5.
(f) All other attributions, credit lines, or source citations and their runovers must be left-adjusted starting four cells to the right of the beginning of the preceding braille line, e.g., aligned in cell 5 following material beginning in cell 1, aligned in cell 7 following material beginning in cell 3, and so forth.