Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
Braille Formats for Print Emphasis
- Special typefaces. For the purposes of this Code rule, special typefaces include the following: italics, boldface, small caps (print capitals the height of lowercase letters), underlining (single and multiple), facsimiles of handwriting and handprinting, or any typeface other than the main typeface used in a text. The italic indicator is used when it is necessary to indicate any of these print typefaces in the braille edition.
NOTE: For the transcription of facsimiles of handwritten or handprinted material in spellers, see Rule 15, Section 1a.
- Special typefaces ignored. Ignore special typefaces for the following.
Chapter titles and other headings except paragraph headings
Displayed material set off by blank lines or a change of margins
Entry words in a glossary, vocabulary, dictionary, or index unless required for distinction, e.g., book titles and foreign words*
Letters that mean letters and are shown standing alone
Lists of words for study
Names of characters, scene settings, and stage directions in plays or dialogue
Quoted matter enclosed in quotation marks unless special typeface must be retained for emphasis or distinction
Word parts, e.g., prefixes and suffixes, shown standing alone even when preceded or followed by a hyphen.
*For entry words in a simple glossary that shows definitions but no pronunciations, see Rule 19, Section 4b(2).
For poetic rhyme scheme letters, see Rule 10, Section 3a
For lists of words with definitions, see Rule 15, Section 1c(2).
- Special typefaces retained. Special typefaces used to indicate emphasis or to show distinction must be retained for the materials listed below.
Anglicized words and phrases, see Rule 1, Section 6b
Foreign words and phrases, see Rule 1, Sections 6c and 6d
Names of ships, pictures, book titles, etc.
Quoted matter set off from the body of the text by blank lines or a change of margins but not enclosed in quotation marks
Words, phrases, or clauses to which particular attention is drawn
- Special typefaces for simple emphasis or distinction
(1) One special typeface. If simple emphasis or distinction is shown by means of any one special typeface, use braille italics to represent that typeface whether it is print italics, boldface, small caps, or underlining. Do not change the wording of the text even when specific reference is made to the typeface by name. This usage does not require explanation in a transcriber's note.
(2) Two or more special typefaces. When two or more special typefaces are used in the text and it is not necessary for the reader to make a distinction between them, use braille italics for these typefaces. Do not change the wording of the text even though specific reference is made to typefaces by name. This usage does not required explanation in a transcriber's note.
(3) Paragraph headings. When paragraph headings are printed in a special typeface (e.g., italics, boldface, boldface italics), they must be italicized in braille even though italics are also used for emphasis within the paragraphs.
- Distinguishing between regular type and two or more special type faces. Follow the directives below only when it is necessary for a full understanding of the text that the reader distinguish between material printed in other special typefaces.
NOTE: Except for the italic indicators when special typeface indicators are used in a text they must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.
(1) Boldface. When it is necessary, represent boldface print by the boldface indicator (456, 46) or the double boldface indicator (456, 46, 46). The rules of usage for these indicators are the same as for braille italic indicators.
(2) Small capitals. When necessary, insert the double capital indicator before each word that is printed in small capitals.
(3) Single or multiple underlining, other special typeface. When necessary, these materials should be placed in symbols of enclosure provided in Rule 6, Section 2 that are not otherwise used in the surrounding text.
- Colors of type. When colored type is used only for visual interest, it must be ignored in braille. However, if it is used to indicate emphasis or to show distinction follow the provisions given below. Transcriber's notes that are required in this Code section must be according to Rule 1, Section 7.
- One color of type. Substitute braille italics when the text shows simple distinction between regular type and one color of type. Explain this substitution in a transcriber's note only if the text refers to type color.
- Distinguishing between italics and colored type or between two or more colors of type. Follow the provisions given below only when it is necessary for the reader to distinguish between material printed in italics and that printed in colored type or between material that is printed in two or more colors. When used in a text the following braille formats must be explained in a transcriber's note.
(1) Colored portions of words,whole words, or phrases. When it is necessary, enclose letters, words, or phrases shown in different colors in different enclosure symbols that are not otherwise used in the text. See Rule 6, Section 2 for braille enclosure symbols.
(2) Colored type for one or more paragraphs. When it is necessary, use the color indicator(s) provided in Section 2c below as follows.
(a) Before each paragraph, insert the appropriate color indicator followed by a blank cell.
(b) After the final paragraph, insert the termination symbol (6, 3) preceded by a blank cell.
- Color indicators. As shown below, the color indicator consists of dots 456 placed unspaced before the first letter(s) of the name of the color. When used in a text, color indicator(s) and the termination symbol must be included in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.
(1) Neither the color indicator nor the termination symbol may stand alone on a braille line; therefore, when necessary a portion of a word shown in color must be placed on the same braille line with the color indicator or the termination symbol.
(2) When both two- and three-cell color indicators are required in a text, use the two-cell indicator for the predominating color.
(3) Additional color indicators may be devised by using dots 456 unspaced before the appropriate letter(s).
- Circled words, words in colored boxes.Circled words must be enclosed by symbols of enclosure that are not otherwise used in the surrounding text, and a transcriber's note must explain this usage. Follow the provisions given in Section 2b(1) above when words are printed in colored boxes.
- Emphasized letters in words
- Alliteration. When alliteration, i.e., repetition of initial consonant sounds or vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables of words in a phrase or poetic line, is shown by special print typeface, type color, or underlined letters, follow the provisions given in Rule 10, Section 4.
- Syllable stress. If syllable stress in the pronunciation of a word is indicated by a special print typeface, type color, underlining, or capitalized letters, the word must be transcribed according to Rule 18, Section 2d.
- Other words showing a letter or letters in special typeface or colored type, underlined, and/or capitalized must be transcribed as follows.
(1) Use uncontracted braille for all such words.
(2) Do not insert hyphens before or after emphasized letters unless they are shown in the print text. However, a braille hyphen must be substituted for a blank space between the letters in syllabified words.
(3) Before a capitalized letter or letters use the capital or double capital indicator.
(4) If the print text shows regular type and only one special typeface or one color, use braille italics to represent the emphasized letter(s).
(5) When the print text shows regular type and two or more special typefaces, follow the provisions given in Section 1d above. See Section 2b(1) above when it is necessary for the reader to distinguish between letters in regular type and those printed in two or more colors.
(6) Insert the termination symbol (6, 3) to terminate the effect of the braille italic, double capital, or boldface indicator. If a print hyphen is shown following a letter or letters printed in a special typeface, the braille hyphen must follow the termination symbol. Include the termination symbol in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.
- Specially marked items in columns and lists. Ignore bullets, check marks, diamonds, stars, and other visual signs that are printed before each item in a column or a list solely for visual effect. However, if only some items are shown marked with these or similar signs, follow the directives given below.
NOTE: For reference marks and notes in columns and lists, see Rule 7, Section 1g for columns, Rule 7, Section 2f for lists.
- When only one kind of print sign is shown with items in a column or list, it must be represented by the symbol dots 26, 26.
- If two or more different signs are shown with items in a column or list, they must be represented by the braille symbols provided in Rule 5, Section 2e.
- The initial letters of all words in the column or the initial letters of the first word of all listed items must be aligned. Before each marked item insert the appropriate braille symbol for the print sign, separated from the initial letter by one blank cell. The cell in which the beginning of the columned words or listed items are aligned constitutes the margin for runovers which mut be indented two cells.
- In a numbered or lettered list of items, follow the procedure given above except that the numbers or letters must be left-adjusted, and the appropriate braille symbol(s) for the print sign(s) must be inserted before the numbers or letters of the marked items. Leave one blank cell to separate the braille symbol from the number or letter. The cell in which the numbers or letters are aligned constitutes the margin for runovers which must be indented two cells.