BRL: Braille through Remote Learning

Specialized Codes Course



Session Topics
  • Signs of Grouping
  • Enclosed Lists (Grouping)
  • Nondecimal Bases
  • Level Indicators
  • Format

  • Reading Exercise
  • Writing Exercise

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Send mail to class
  • Main BRL page
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Intro Braille course
  • Transcribers course


    Use of Signs of Grouping: The signs of grouping listed below must be used throughout a technical text both for literary material and for mathematical material. The parentheses, brackets, and braces of English braille must only be used to enclose literary material on title pages. Any sign of grouping not listed below must must be devised using two or more braille symbols whose last cell is dots 1-2-3-5-6 for the opening sign and dots 2-3-4-5-6 for the closing sign. A transcriber's note must be included to explain the devised sign of grouping.

    While signs of grouping most commonly occur in pairs, the text must be followed when only the opening or only the closing grouping sign is shown in print. No space should be left between on opening or a closing sign of grouping and the material which it encloses.

    Opening ( dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing ) dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Brackets (square)
    Opening [ dots 4dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing ] dots 4dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Boldface Opening [ dots 4-5-64 dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Boldface Closing ] dots 4-5-6dots 4dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Barred Brackets
    Opening dots 4dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing dots 4dots 4-5-6dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Angle Brackets
    Opening < dots 4-6dots 4-6dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing > dots 4-6dots 4-6dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Braces (curly brackets)
    Opening { dots 4-6dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing } dots 4-6dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Barred Braces
    Opening dots 4-6dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Closing dots 4-6dots 4-5-6dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Half Brackets
    Upper Left dots 4dots 4-5dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Upper Right dots 4dots 4-5dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Lower Left dots 5-6dots 5-6dots 1-2-3-5-6
    Lower Right dots 4dots 5-6dots 2-3-4-5-6
    Vertical Bars
    Single dots 1-2-5-6
    Double | | dots 1-2-5-6dots 1-2-5-6
    Boldface Single | dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-5-6
    Boldface Double | | dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-5-6dots 4-5-6dots 1-2-5-6
    Transcriber's Grouping
    Opening (no print equivalent) dots 63
    Closing (no print equivalent) dots 6dots 3

    Punctuation With Signs of Grouping: A sign of grouping must be punctuated mathematically and must not itself be considered a punctuation mark. Thus, except for the mathematical commas, hyphen, and dash, the punctuation indicator must be used before a punctation mark following a sign of grouping.

    1. ("two").

    2. ("2")

    3. (-"two")

    Contractions With Signs of Grouping: Although contractions may generally be used n words, parts of words, and abbreviations, the contractions listed below must not be used, whether capitalized, or italicized, when they come in direct contact with a sign of grouping or when they are separated from a sign of grouping by a punctuation mark. Except as noted in subsection a, ii below , if a contraction cannot be used in one part of a word, contractions must not be used in any part of the word. Words and abbreviations, whether contracted or uncontracted, must be punctuated according to the rules of English braille.
    1. The following categories restrict the use of contractions:
      1. The one-cell whole-word alphabet contractions for but, can, do, ... , as.

        1. (but not in division)

        2. (that is)

        3. (you can do it)

        4. (Not now.)

        5. (you cannot do so)

        6. ("Can you go?")

        7. (but, you must not)

        8. (More. not less.)

      2. The whole-word lower-sign contractions for be, enough, were, his,in, was, to, into, by. Part-word contractions may be used in enough, were, and into.

        1. The x (in the example below) is the variable.

        2. (Be sure you are correct)

        3. (that is enough)

        4. (were you sure of your answer)

        5. (his answer is wrong)

        6. ("in all cases it holds true")

        7. (This cannot be)

        8. (into every dividend)

        9. (this fact must be looked into)

        10. ("By your leave.")

        11. (to within a tolerance of 5 cm)

        12. (by your calculations)

      3. The whole- or part-word contractions for and, for, of, the with.

        1. Mary (and Sandra) can add.

        2. (and, in addition)

        3. (Andrea, Andrew, Sandra)

        4. We are (for and with) you.

        5. (For example.)

        6. (What did you come for ?)

        7. Read (formula 4.6) p.36.

        8. They (of the example above) is negative.

        9. ["of course not"]

        10. (Find the proof.)

        11. {the months of the year}

        12. Add 4 + 3 (then devide).

        13. Do it (without dividing) mentally.

    Signs of Grouping With Numerals: The numeric indicator must not be used before a numeral in regular type, before a decimal point, of after a minus sign immediately following any of the print opening signs of grouping listed above. The numeric indicator is required with any numeral not in regular type.

    1. (1), (2), and (3)

    2. {10,000}

    3. | 3 |

    4. (1, 2, and 3)

    5. (1 + 2 = 3, 1 + 3 = 4)

    6. (1-to-1 correspondence)

    7. (.1 < .2)

    8. (-10 and + 4 is -6)

    9. (2 is imaginary; ['2' is real])

    10. (2 and 3)

    Signs of Grouping With Letters:

    1. The Engllish letter indicator must not be used when a single English letter or an unspaced combination of letters in regular type is entirely inclosed within signs of grouping.

      1. (a), (b), and (c).

      2. [x], [x], {R}, | y | , | | f | |

      3. (ab) and (cd) are not equal.

      4. (xy) and (XY)

    2. When a single English letter or an unspaced combination of letters is in direct contact with only its opening or closing sign of grouping, the English letter indicator must be used or must not be used as though the grouping signs were not present. However, the English letter indicator must not be used when a grouping sign carries a prime or other modifying model.

      1. (a, b and C)

      2. (p is less than q)

      3. ("M is greater than N")

      4. (x's and y's)

      5. (nth root of x)

      6. (x-intercept)

      7. (not-p)

      8. (ab is the same as ba)

      9. (side AB)

      10. (-r, +s, and -t)

      11. (b' is read as "b prime")

      12. (a = b, b = c, ab = cd)

      13. (j = 1, 2, 3, . . ., n)

      14. a) 3 x 4 = ?

      15. t]' and v]' have unique meaning.

    3. The English letter indicator must be used with any English letter printed in nonregular type even though it is enclosed within, or in contact with, signs of grouping.

      1. (j)

      2. (r, s, and T)

    4. The appropriate alphabetic indicator must be used with any letter from the German, Greek, Hebrew, or Russian alphabets even when enclosed within, or in contact with, signs of grouping.

      Signs of Grouping of Abbreviations: When an abbreviation occurs within grouping signs, no space should be left between the abbreviation and its related sign of grouping. The English letter indicator must be treated as though the grouping signs were not present.

      1. 1 liter (l)

      2. 1 liter (l.)

      3. 1 year (yr) = 12 months (mo)

      4. 1 year (yr.) = 12 months (mo.)

      5. (N 30degrees W)

      6. (N. 30 degrees W.)

      7. (1 light-yr)

      8. (1 light-yr.)

      9. (g-mole)

      10. (d-c means "direct current")

      11. 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in)

      12. (i.e.)

      13. (L.C.M. means least common multiple)

      14. (EST)

      15. {Wed., Thurs., Fri.}

    Developed by
    Shodor logoThe Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.
    in cooperation with the
    North Carolina Central University
    and the Governor Morehead School for the Blind

    Copyright © 1998