English Braille
American Edition



Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

  • Index
    Typical and Problem Words

  • Index
    BRL Courses
  • Intro to Braille
  • Braille Transcribers
  • Specialized Codes


    (See Rule V. §24.-§26. and
    Code of Braille Textbook Formats and Techniques, most recent edition.)

    1. French Accent Letters::
      &ç c cedilla
      ?ô o circumflex
      =é e acute
      :û u circumflex
      (à a grave
      $ë e with diaeresis
      !è e grave
      ]ï i with diaresis
      23456ù u grave
      \ü u with diaresis
      *â a circumflex
      >æ diphthong
      <ê e circumflex
      [œ diphthong
      /î i circumflex

    2. Italian Accent Letters:
      (à a grave
      *â a circumflex
      !è e grave
      <ê e circumflex
      /ì i grave
      %î i circumflex
      +ò o grave
      ?ô o circumflex
      )ù u grave
      :û u circumflex

    3. Spanish:
      a. Accent Letters:
      (á a acute
      )ú u acute
      !é e acute
      ]ñ n with tilde
      /í i acute
      \ü u with diaeresis
      +ó o acute

    b. Punctuation Signs:
      5¿ ? (to be placed before and at the end of sentence or word)
      6¡ ! (to be placed before and at the end of sentence or word)
      --— Opening conversation sign*
      --— Closing conversation sign*

    *To be used where dashes appear in print copy. These signs should be written without a
    space between them and the first or ending word of conversation. Ex:
      —Me alarmÄ—siguió diciendo—porque se quedó inmóvil y fría.
      --,me alarm!--sigui+
      qued+ inm+vil y fr/a4

    4. German Accented Letters:
      Sign Letter
      \ ü u with umlaut
      > ä a with umlaut
      [ ö o with umlaut

    5. Latin Diphthongs and Vowel Signs:
      SignDiphthongSignVowel Sign
      > æ diphthong _ long vowel sign
      [ œ diphthong ^ short vowel sign

      a. The diphthongs may also be used when the letters are written separately, but they should
      be avoided with a diaeresis, even if the diaeresis is not printed. Ex:
        poeta poeta
      b. The vowel signs should precede the individual letters affected.
      6. Greek:
        a. International Greek Alphabet:
      SignGreek LettersEnglish
      SignGreek LettersEnglish
      a A a alpha a n N n nu n
      b B b beta b x X x xi x
      g G g gamma g o O o omicron o
      d D d delta d p P p pi p
      e E e epsilon e r R r rho r,rh
      z Z z zeta z s S s or V sigma s
      : H h eta t T t tau t
      ? Q q theta th u U u upsilon y,u
      i I i iota i f F f phi ph,f
      k K k kappa k & C c chi ch,k
      l L l lambda l y Y y psi ps
      m M m mu m w W w omega

      b. Accented Vowels:Acute (´)Grave (`)Circumflex (^)
      alpha > ( *
      epsilon $c
      eta =! <
      iota ]/ %
      omicron [+
      upsilon \) v
      omega jq #

      c. Other Special signs:
      9 i iota subscriptum
      2 ; Question mark (written in print as a semicolon)
      3 - Sign for long vowel
      , _ Sign for short vowel
      h _ spiritus asper (rough breathing)
      0 ’ spiritus lenis
      ^ ’ Chief stress sign
      @ ’ Secondary stress sign