English Braille
American Edition



Definition of Braille

Rules of Braille
  1. Punctuation Signs
  2. Special Composition Signs
  3. Format
  4. Asterisk, Footnotes, References
  5. Accent Sign, Diphthongs, Foreign Languages
  6. Abbreviations
  7. Numbers and Roman Numerals
  8. Coinage, Weights, and Other Special Symbols
  9. Poetry, Scansion, and Stress
  10. General Use of Contractions
  11. One-cell whole-word contractions
  12. One-cell part-word contractions
  13. Lower Signs
  14. Initial-letter contractions
  15. Final-letter contractions
  16. Short-form words

  • Index
    Typical and Problem Words

  • Index
    BRL Courses
  • Intro to Braille
  • Braille Transcribers
  • Specialized Codes


    Abbreviations, ¤27
      Comprised of portions of words, ¤27.b
      Dates, ¤27.e.
      Initials, ¤27.c.
      Italicized, ¤10.a.
      Letters, uncapitalized, uncontracted, ¤27.a.
      Postal districts, ¤27.d.
      Print, ¤31.a.
      Telephone numbers, ¤27.f.
      With/without period, ¤27., ¤27.a.
      Written in capital letters, ¤27.a.
    Accent sign, ¤24.c.
      Anglicized words and proper names in English context, ¤24.a.
      English stressed syllables, ¤24.c.
      Foreign words and phrases, and italicized or quoted foreign passages in English context, ¤24.d.
      Used for stressed syllables in scansion and stress, ¤33.c.
    Acknowledgments, ¤15.c.
    Ally, ¤46. (exception c.)
    Alphabet and numbers, table of 2 And, ¤37.
    And, ¤38.b.
    Anglicized words and names, ¤24.a.
    Apostrophe, Rule 1 ¤4.
      Insertion of in plural abbreviations, numbers or letters, ¤4.a.
    Apostrophized words, italicized, ¤10.a.
      A¾Special formats A-1
      B¾Foreign languages B-1
      C¾Other grades of braille, special braille codes C-1
      D¾Diacritics and phonetics D-1
    Asterisk, ¤21.
      When used in print to denote omissions, ¤21.a.
    Ation, ¤46. (exception d.)
    Bb, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Be, ¤39.
    Be, ¤43.
    Blank lines in print, ¤10.g.
    Blank lines in print, ¤20.
    Blank lines, use of, ¤17.a., ¤17.b.
      Opening and closing, ¤3.
      Portion of word enclosed in, ¤3.a.
    Braille Grade 1_ (revised), App. C. ¤1.c.
    Braille Grade 3, App. C. ¤1.a.
    Braille shorthand, App. C. ¤1.b.
    Breaks in context, App. A. ¤3.
    By, ¤41.
    Caesura sign, ¤33.b.
    Capital sign:
      Double, use of, ¤9.b.
      Single, use of, ¤9.a.
      Single and double, ¤9.
    Capitalized portions of words, writing of, ¤11.
    Cardinal numbers, ¤28.
    Cc, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Cc, ¤42.
    Change of margin, ¤10.g.
    Coinage, ¤31.
      Decimal, ¤28.g.
      Sterling, ¤28.e.
      Sterling, ¤31.b.(2)
    Coinage, weights, measures and other special symbols, ¤31.
    Composition signs, special braille, table of, Rule II
      Order of, ¤8.
    Com, ¤44.
    Compound words:
      Italicized, ¤10.a.
      Use of double capital sign, ¤9.b.
      Use of single capital sign, ¤9.a.
    Con, ¤43.
    Contents pages, ¤15.b.
      Choice of use, ¤35.
      Final-letter, table of, Rule XV
        Examples, ¤46.
        Exceptions to general rule, ¤46.a.-d.
        General rule, ¤46.
      Forming parts of words:
        General exception, ¤34.c.
        General rule, ¤34.
        Not used, ¤34.b.
        Used, ¤34.a.
      General use of, Rule X
      Initial-letter, tables of, Rule XIV
        Examples, ¤45.
        Exceptions to general rule, ¤45.a.-f.
        General rule, ¤45.
      Lower signs, table of, Rule XIII
        Be, con, dis, ¤43.
        Be, enough, were, his, in, was, ¤39.
        Com, ¤44.
        Ea and double-letter signs bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, ¤42.
        To, into, by, ¤41.
      Not used:
        In anglicized proper names, words or phrases, ¤24.a.(2)
        In foreign words and names, ¤24.b.
      One-cell part-word, table of, Rule XII
        And, for, of, the, with, ¤38.b.
        General rule, ¤38.
      One-cell whole-word, table of, Rule XI
        A, and, for, of, the, with, ¤37.
        General rule, ¤36.
      Preferred contractions, ¤35.
      St, ¤38.c.
      Use in dialect, ¤34.e.
      Use in proper names, English or foreign, in English context, ¤24.a.
      Use in transcribing books on specialized subjects, ¤34.d.
    Dash and double dash:
      Beginning and ending of line, ¤6.
      Indicating omitted word, ¤6.a.
      Not used in writing scores in number form, ¤28.a.
      Short and double, ¤6.
      Spacing of, ¤6.
      With Roman numerals, ¤30.a.
    Dates, abbreviated, ¤27.e.
    Dd, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Dd, ¤42.
    Decimal coinage, ¤28.g.
    Decimal sign, ¤28.f.
    Dedications, ¤15.c.
    Definition of braille
    Diacritics, App. D. ¤1.
    Diaereses, writing of, ¤25.
    Diagrams, ¤19.
    Diphthongs, ¤25.
    Dis, ¤43.
    Ditto sign, ¤31.e.
    Division of words at end of line, ¤5.a.
    Dollars and cents, ¤28.g.
    Dots, when used to indicate omitted letters, ¤7.a.
    Double capital sign, ¤9.b.
      Writing of letter groups, ¤9.b.
    Double italic sign, ¤10.
    Double-letter signs, ¤42.
    Ea, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Ea, ¤42.
    Editing of copy, ¤19.
    Ellipsis, ¤7.
      Omission of paragraph, ¤7.b.
      Spacing and punctuation of, ¤7.
      To be substituted when asterisk used in print to indicate omissions, ¤21.a.
    Ence, ¤35.b. (exception)
    Ence, ¤46. (exception a.)
    English, Old and Middle, ¤26.c.
    Enough, ¤39.
    Ff, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Ff, ¤42.
    Final-letter contractions, tables of, Rule XV
      Exceptions, ¤46.a.-d.
    Foot sign, end of, ¤33.b.
      In notes section, ¤22.b.
      Long, placed at end of paragraph, ¤22.a.(2)
      Poetry and plays, ¤22.b.
      Prose, ¤22.a.
      Short, ¤22.a.(1)
      Tabular material, ¤22.c.
      Writing of, ¤22.
    For, ¤37.
    For, ¤38.b.
    Foreign accented letters:
      In writing foreign-language texts, ¤26.
      In writing foreign words and phrases, and italicized or quoted foreign passages in English context, ¤24.c.
    Foreign language passages and texts, ¤26.
    Foreign languages, App. B.
      French, App. B. ¤1.
      German, App. B. ¤4.
      Greek, App. B. ¤6.
      Italian, App. B. ¤2.
      Latin, App. B. ¤5.
      Spanish, App. B. ¤3.
    Foreign material in English context, ¤24.d. Foreign words and names, ¤24.b.
    Foreign words not to be contracted, ¤24.b., ¤26.
    Forewords, ¤15.d.
    Format, braille:
      Blank lines, use of, ¤17.a., ¤17.b., ¤20.
      Contents pages, ¤15.b.
      Dedications, acknowledgments, ¤15.c.
      General rule, ¤14.
        Centered and cell 5, ¤17.
        Paragraph, ¤18.b.
      Omissions of copy, editing, ¤19.
      Page numbering, ¤16.
      Paragraphs, ¤18.
      Prefaces, forewords, introductions, ¤15.d.
      Title pages, ¤15.a.
      Volume endings, ¤15.e.

    Formats, special, App. A.
      Breaks in context, App. A. ¤3.
        Paragraphing, App. A. ¤1.
        Poetry, App. A. ¤2.
        Termination line, App. A. ¤4.

      Outlines, App. A. ¤7.
      Plays and other dramatic material, App. A. ¤8.
      Poetry, App. A. ¤8.d.
      Special symbols page, App. A. ¤9.
      Tabular material, App. A. ¤5.
      Test materials, App. A. ¤6.
      Transcriber's notes page, App. A. ¤10.

    TFractions, writing of, ¤28.c.
    French accented letters, App. B. ¤1.
    German accented letters, App. B. ¤4.
    Gg, ¤34.b.(1) (exception)
    Gg, ¤42.
    Grade 3 Braille, App. C. ¤1.a.
    Greek alphabet (international) and other special signs, App. B. ¤6. a.-c.
    Greek passages in English text, ¤26.b.
    Greek letters, writing of in English context, ¤24.e.
    Had, ¤45. (exception e.)
      Cell 5, ¤17.b.
      Centered, ¤17.a.
      Paragraph, ¤18.b.
    Here, ¤45. (exception b.)
    His, ¤39.
    Hyphen, ¤5.
      Spacing after disconnected compound words, ¤5.
      Use in compound words, ¤5.
      Use in joining numbers, ¤28.b.
      Use in writing scores in number form, ¤28.a.
      Used to set apart italicized or capitalized portions of words, ¤11.
      When used to indicate omitted letters, ¤5.b.
      With Roman numerals, ¤30.a.
    Illustrations, omission of, ¤19.
    In, ¤39.
    Initial-letter contractions, tables of, Rule XIV
      Exceptions, ¤45.a.-f.
    Initials, ¤27.c.
    Inscriptions, ¤32.b.(1)
    Integral numbers, division of, ¤28.b.
    Into, ¤41.
    Introductions, ¤15.d.
    IPA Phonetics Code, App. D. ¤3.
    Italian accented letters, App. B. ¤2.
    Italic sign:
      In abbreviations, ¤10.a.
      In apostrophized words, ¤10.a.
      In compound words, ¤10.a.
      Single and double, ¤10.
    Italicized passages, ¤10.b.
      Comprising more than one paragraph, ¤10.c.
      Dash or ellipsis at beginning or end, ¤10.d.
      Last word in compound word, ¤10.b.
    Italicized portions of words, writing of, ¤11.
    Italicized titles or items, list of, ¤10.b.
      Omission of in quoted matter, ¤10.f.
      To be substituted for small capital letters, bold-face type, or underscoring, ¤10.e.
      Used in paragraph headings, ¤18.b.
    Ity, ¤46. (exception c.)
    Latin diphthongs and vowel signs, App. B. ¤5.
    Letter sign, ¤12.
      Purpose, ¤12.
      Use in languages not employing Roman alphabet, ¤26.b.
      When not used, ¤12.b.
      When used, ¤12.a.
      With letter endings of Roman numerals, ¤30.b.
      With uncapitalized Roman numerals, ¤30.
    Letters, alphabet (see letter sign)
    Line sign, ¤32.b.(1)
    Lisped words, ¤13.c.
    Lower signs, Rule XIII
    Lower sign rule, ¤40.
    Mathematical signs of operation, common, ¤28.j.
    Measures, ¤31.
    Mixed numbers, writing of, ¤28.d.
    Money, foreign, ¤31.b.(1)
    Ness, ¤46. (exception b.)
    Non-Latin letters, ¤24.e.
    Non-Latin letters, ¤31.c.
    Non-Latin words, ¤26.b.
    Number sign, ¤28.
      Termination of effect, ¤28.a.
      Cardinal, ¤28.
      Decimal coinage, ¤28.g.
      Decimal sign, ¤28.f.
      Division of, ¤28.b.
      Fractions, ¤28.c.
      Mixed numbers, ¤28.d.
      Oblique stroke or bar, ¤28.e.
      Ordinal, ¤29.
      Roman numerals, ¤30.
      Sports scores, votes, results, writing of, ¤28.a.
      Time, definite point of, ¤28.h.
      Time, intervals of, ¤28.i.
      With dash, ¤28.a.
      With hyphen, ¤28.b.
    Numerals, Roman, ¤30.
    Oblique stroke or bar, ¤28.e.
      With numbers, ¤28.e.
    Of, ¤37.
    Of, ¤38.b.
    Omissions of copy, ¤19.
    Omitted letters:
      When indicated by dots, ¤7.a.
      When indicated by hyphens, ¤5.b.
    Omitted words, indicated by dash, ¤6.a.
    One, ¤45. (exceptions a., b.)
    One-cell part-word signs, Rule XII
    One-cell whole-word and part-word signs, table of
    One-cell whole-word contractions, Rule XI
    Ordinal numbers, ¤29.
      Omission of "n" or "r" in, ¤29. (exception)
      With foreign endings, writing of, ¤29. (exception)
    Other grades of braille:
      Grade 3 Braille, App. C. ¤1.a.
      Revised Braille Grade 1_, App. C. ¤1.c.
      Shorthand, App. C. ¤1.b.
      Special braille codes, App. C. ¤2.
    Outlines, App. A. ¤7.
    Page numbering, ¤16.
      Paragraph headings, ¤18.b.
      Paragraphing, ¤18.a.
      Paragraphing, App. A. ¤1.
        Opening and closing, ¤3.
        Portion of word enclosed in, ¤3.a.
      Part, ¤45. (exception c.)
      Phonetics, App. D. ¤3.
      Plays and other dramatic material, App. A. ¤8.
        Numbered lines, ¤32.c.
        Prose format, ¤32.b.
        Special format, App. A. ¤2.
        Verse format, ¤32.a.
      Portions of words, italicized or capitalized, ¤11.
      Postal districts, ¤27.d.
      Prefaces, ¤15.d.
      Print abbreviations, ¤31.a.
      Print symbols list, ¤31.b.
      Print symbol indicator, ¤31.b.(2)
        Use in technical works, ¤31.d.
      Pronunciation systems of well-known dictionaries, App. D. ¤2.
      Proper names:
        Use of contractions in, ¤24.a.
        Use of contractions in, ¤36.c.
        Use of contractions in, ¤38.e.
        Use of short-form words in, ¤47.b.
      Punctuation and composition signs, table of 3 Order of, ¤8.
      Punctuation signs, table of, Rule I
        Use and order of, ¤1.
      Quotation marks:
        Double and single, ¤2.
        Reversed in print, ¤2.a.
      Quoted matter, change of type or written in italics, ¤10.g.
      References, ¤23.
      Revised Braille Grade 1_, App. C. ¤1.c.
      Roman numerals, ¤30.
        Capitalized, ¤30.
        In dates, ¤27.e.
        Letter endings, ¤30.b.
        Rare, forms for, ¤30.c.
        Uncapitalized, ¤30.
        With dash, ¤30.a.
        With hyphen, ¤30.a.
        I¾Punctuation signs
        II¾Special braille composition signs
        IV¾Asterisk, footnotes, references
        V¾Anglicized and foreign words, accent sign, diphthongs, foreign languages
        VII¾Numbers and Roman numerals
        VIII¾Coinage, weights, measures and other special symbols
        IX¾Poetry, scansion and stress
        X¾General use of contractions
        XI¾One-cell whole-word contractions
        XII¾One-cell part-word signs
        XIII¾Lower signs
        XIV¾Initial-letter contractions
        XV¾Final-letter contractions
        XVI¾Short-form words
      Scansion and stress, ¤33.
        Accent sign used for stressed syllables, ¤33.c.
        Caesura sign, ¤33.b.
        End of foot sign, ¤33.b.
        Long or stressed syllable sign, ¤33.a.
        Short or unstressed syllable sign, ¤33.a.
      Short-form words, Rule XVI
        Rules of usage, ¤47.
        Table of
      Single capital sign, ¤9.a.
      Some, ¤45. (exception d.)
      Spanish accented letters and punctuation signs, App. B. ¤3.
      Special braille codes, App. C. ¤2.
      Special symbols page, App. A. ¤9.
      Speech hesitation, ¤13.b.
      Spelling, ¤13.b.
      St, ¤38.c.
      Stammering, ¤13.a.
      Sterling coinage, ¤31.b.(1)
      Syllabified words, ¤13.d.
      Symbols, print, ¤31.b.
      Tabular material, App. A. ¤5.
        Footnotes with, ¤22.c.
      Telephone numbers, ¤27.f.
      Termination line, App. A. ¤4.
      Termination sign, ¤11.
        Restriction of use, ¤11.
        Used to set apart italicized or capitalized portions of words, ¤11.
      Test materials, App. A. ¤6.
      The, ¤37.
      The, ¤38.b.
        Definite point of, ¤28.h.
        Intervals of, ¤28.i.
      Title pages, ¤15.a.
      To, ¤41.
      Transcriber's notes page, App. A. ¤10.
      Two-cell contractions, table of
      Typical and problem words
      Vocal sounds without word meanings, ¤13.b.
      Volume endings, ¤15.e.
      Was, ¤39.
      Weights, ¤31.
      Were, ¤39.
      With, ¤37.
      With, ¤38.b.
      Words, typical and problem