BRL: Braille through Remote Learning
Reference Desk

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BANA publications
  • English Braille, American Edition 1994
  • Braille Formats
  • Chemistry 1997
  • Music 1997
  • Nemeth Mathematics 1972
    Reference Sheets
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions List
  • Braille contractions
  • Typical Problem words

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    6. Part-word contractions

    1. As whole-word contractions

      1. Contractions ar, ed, er, gh, and ow

        1. Are subject to the general rules for use of contractions.

        2. Are used wherever they occur within a word.

          (ar)rival (ed)ucate (Er)ie
          b(ar)t(er) b(ed)d(ing) c(er)amics
          ne(ar) cre(ed) (ch)e(er)

          (gh)o(st) (ow)n
          r(ou)(gh)ly h(ow)l
          wei(gh) br(ow)

        3. The contractions ed, er, and ow have no word meanings, so they are used when shown standing alone.

          (Ed) [the name] (er) [vocal sound] (ow) [exclamation

      2. Contractions ing and ble

        1. Are subject to the general rules for use of contractions

        2. May never begin a word, but may begin a line in a divided word.

          (in)got bl(ed) go(ing)s em(ble)m
          s(ing)ly peb(ble) go-